Observations and Results


Observations and Experiment:

Morphologies and Life History

Native vs. Invasive

Tunicates in Immunology

Organisms of the Intertidal Zone

Photo Galleries:

Above are pictures taken of the sprawling colonies of both B. schlosseri, and B. violaceus found in November. Growth was not limited to any substrate as long as the tunicate was submerged during a tide cycle.


                                                                                                                                                                 Figure 1.

            On September 22, 2006, observations began two hours before low tide (.6m at 6:05pm), thus when beginning, the lower intertidal zone was submerged. It was not noted that there were vast numbers of colonies, though the tidal pool that was inspected had innumerable amounts of B. schlosseri and B. violaceus colonies, varying in size from several individual zooids to approximately eight inches across. Both species were found on mussels and a piece of Fucus spp. All the species were emerged in water, but other than that, there was little that limited the growth on rocks. The tunicates grew over the barnacle, Semibalanous balanoides, and other small pebbles or shells. B. violaceus had larger mats than B. schlosseri, though the number of colonies of the tunicates appeared to be similar. Measurements of the tide pool and four tunicate colonies were taken (Table 1).
iButton data was recorded in four regions of the intertidal zone. They were deployed at approximately the same time (Fig. 1).

Data collection: September 22, 2006    
Tide Pool dim.: 1st pool 2nd pool 3rd pool    
Length 220cm   540cm (540cm spanned 2nd and 3rd pools)
Width (3rd pool)     290cm    
Species Longest across Longest width Shortest width Position in relation to transect line
Group 1 B. violaceus 12cm 4cm 1cm ~ 1m down from marker; 5cm to R (if facing water)
Group 2 B. violaceus 8cm 8cm 1.5cm ~ 1m down from marker; 5cm to R (if facing water)
Group 3 B. schlosseri 5.5cm 2cm 0.5cm ~ 1m down from marker; 5cm to R (if facing water)
Group 4 B.schlosseri 5cm 3cm 0.5cm ~ 80cm down from marker; 23cm to L (if facing water)
Table 1.

Figure 2.
         On November 3, 2006, fewer observations were made due to collections and a late arrival by the researcher. However, there appeared to be a great increase in tunicate colony growth throughout the intertidal zone. This was noted at approximately low tide, (-0.7m at 2:57pm). November 4, 2006 is supplemented by photographs taken of the widespread increase of tunicate colonies. Observations began approximately one and a half hours before low tide (-1.3m at 3:51pm). Tunicates were exceptionally apparent in the lower intertidal zone. Color morphs were recorded that were not previously noted by the researcher. Larger colonies of B. schlosseri were seen, though B. violaceus seemed to be dominant and covered more area. Both species were found covering Chondrus crispus and Fucus spp. There were very few tunicates covering the thallus of Ascophyllum nodosum. One tunicate colony previously noted in September was again measured. (Group 1: Longest across-16 1/2cm, longest width-8cm, shortest width-2 1/2cm.) The others, though not recorded, appeared to have increased in size.

            iButton data was recorded for both November 3 (Fig. 2) and November 4, (Fig. 3). On November 3, the iButtons were deployed at similar times. However, on November 4, the iButtons were all deployed at varying times.

                                                                                                                                                Figure 3.