University Marketing and Communications

Clark University Style Guide

The Clark University Communications style guide is a resource for frequently asked questions. The style guide is based on the Associated Press Stylebook, with minor alterations for Clark-specific usage. Sports entries are based on the Sports Style Guide and Reference Manual. If you have any questions, or would like to add an entry, please contact Melissa Lynch, assistant director for editorial services (x7441).

This is not intended as a guide for academic publications.

abbreviations—Before using an abbreviation or acronym, write out the whole word or title. On second reference use the abbreviation.

academic degrees—B.A. (Bachelor of Arts), M.A. (Master of Arts), M.B.A. (Master of Business Administration), M.S.F. (Master of Science in Finance), M.S.P.C. (Master of Science in Professional Communication), Ph.D. (Doctor of Philosophy), Ph.D.s. Use "bachelor's" and "master's degree." When referring to degrees in general, lowercase the first letter of the degree and use "degrees" (they all had master's degrees in engineering; the brothers received doctoral degree.). Capitalize formal names of academic degrees (Bachelor of Science, Bachelor of Arts in Accounting).

academic subjects—Academic subjects are not capitalized unless referring to a language. She teaches chemistry. Her research is in screen studies. He teaches English. Academic department names are capitalized: "This event is sponsored by the Visual and Performing Arts Department."


addresses—Abbreviate Ave., Blvd., and St. only with a numbered address (Clark is on Main Street. Clark's address is 950 Main St.). Use figures in address numbers. Spell out First through Ninth when used as street names. Use figures with two letters for 10th and above, (e.g. 7 Fifth Ave., 100 21st St.) Only use postal abbreviations for states (e.g., MA, NH, CA) when used with a mailing address. Within text, abbreviate as follows (but never abbreviate Alaska, Hawaii, Idaho, Iowa, Maine, Ohio, Texas or Utah):

Ala. Md. N.D.
Ariz. Mass. Okla.
Ark. Mich. Ore.
Calif. Minn. Pa.
Colo. Miss. R.I.
Conn. Mo. S.C.
Del. Mont. S.D.
Fla. Neb. Tenn.
Ga. Nev. Vt.
Ill. N.H. Va.
Ind. N.J. Wash.
Kan. N.M. W.Va.
Ky. N.Y. Wis.
La. N.C. Wyo.

admissions, admittance—Admittance is physical entry into a space. Admission is figurative entry or a sense or right or privilege of participation.

adopt, approve, enact, pass—Amendments, ordinances, resolutions and rules are adopted or approved. Bills are passed. Laws are enacted.

adviser—Not advisor.

affect/effect—Affect is usually the verb. Effect is usually the noun.

African-American—Noun and adjective (hyphenate).

afterward—Not afterwards.

ages—Always use figures. A 5-year-old boy; the boy is 5 years old. The boy, 7, has a sister, 10. The race is for 3-year-olds. The woman is in her 30s.

ALANA—an acronym that stands for African-, Latino/a-, Asian-, and Native-American. Use hyphens.

All- —Sports. Capitalize "All" when it is part of a proper name. Keating was named an All-American. The National League won the All-Star Game 10-1.

All-America, All-American—Sports. Use All-America in reference to a team or honor: He made the All-America team. He was an All-America selection. Use All-American in reference to an individual: She is an All-American.

all right—Never alright. Hyphenate only as a modifier (he is an all-right student).

already, all ready—Already means having occurred. All ready means prepared.

All-Star, all-star—Sports. Capitalize as part of a proper name: When is the NHL All-Star Game? Armstrong was chosen to be an NCAA All-Star. Lowercase all-star in other references: The NFL all-star game is the Pro Bowl. Several high-school all-stars were selected to our team.

Alumni and Student Engagement Center—Clark's newest facility. Do not use "ASEC" in formal, external correspondence.

alumni/a/ae/us—Female singular, alumna; female plural, alumnae; male singular, alumnus; male plural, or mixed-group, alumni. When referring to a group of Clark graduates, alumni and alumnae/i are both acceptable. (Many alumnae/i attended reunion. The Clark alumni joined students at the event.)

a.m., p.m.—Lowercase, with periods. Use 8 p.m., not 8:00 p.m. Avoid the redundant "10 a.m. this morning. Use noon to refer to 12 p.m., and midnight for v12 a.m.

AM, FM—Radio frequencies; uppercase, no periods.

among, between—Use between to show relationship between two objects; use among when more than two objects are involved.

Ampersand (&)—Use when part of a company's formal name. The ampersand should not otherwise be used in place of and.

area codes—Do not use parentheses around area codes: 508-793-7441, not (508) 793-7441.

Asian-American—Noun and adjective (always hyphenate).

bachelor's degree—See academic degrees.

baseball terms—Sports. at-bat (n.), backstop, ballgame, ballplayer, base line, base path, base runner, base running (n.), base-running (adj.), bullpen, center field, center fielder, curveball, designated hitter, doubleheader, double play (n.), double-play (adj.), extra-base hit, extra-inning game, fair ball, fastball, first-base line, first baseman, fly out (v.), fly-out (n.), foul ball, foul line, foul tip, ground-rule double, hit batsman, home plate, home run, home-run hitter, inside-the-park home run, knuckleball, lead off (v.), lead-off (adj.), leadoff (n.), left-center field, left-center-field fence, line drive (n.), line-drive (adj.),line up (v.), lineup (n.), no-hitter, outfielder, pinch hit (v.), pinch-hit (n, adj.), pinch hitter, playoff (n., adj.), pop-up (n.), RBI (singular), RBIs (plural), right-center field, right field, sacrifice fly, sacrifice hit, second baseman, second-base umpire, shortstop, shut out (v.), shoutout (n., adj.), squeeze bunt, stand-up double, strike out (v.), strikeout (n., adj.), switch-hitter, third-base coach, third-base line, strike zone, triple play, wind up (v.), windup (n.).

bases—Sports. On first reference, write first base, second base, third base, home plate. On second reference, first, second, etc.

basketball terms—Sports. alley-oop, backboard, backcourt, backcourtman, baseline, crossover dribble, double dribble (n.), double-dribble (v.), downcourt, dunk, fast break, field goal (n.), field-goal (adj.), foul line, foul shot, four-corner defense, free throw, free-throw line, front court, full-court press, halfcourt, half-court press, halftime, hook shot, jump ball, jump shot, lay-up, man-to-man (n., adj.), midcourt, out-of-bounds (adj.), pivotman, technical foul, timeout, tip in (v.), tip-in (n.), three-pointer, three-point line, three-point shot, three-second rule, throw in (v.), throw-in (n., adj.), turn over (v.), turnover (n.), zone.

book titles—Put book titles in quotes and capitalize first word, last word and essential words ("A Tale of Two Cities"). Magazine, newspaper or journal titles may be italicized.


but yet—Redundant if used together.

campuswide—One word. Also citywide, statewide, worldwide, etc.

cancel, canceled, canceling, cancellation—not "cancelled."

capital, capitol—Capital is the city where the seat of government is located. Capitol is the building.

CD, CD-ROM—"CD" is acceptable in all uses. Acronym for a compact disk acting as a read-only memory device.

CLARK alumni magazine—Published twice yearly, fall and spring.

Clark Fund - No capital "t" when used in the middle of a sentence. Alumni and friends support the Clark Fund.

class titles—Capitalized without quotes.

class year—Use a backward apostrophe (') before the class year. Joe Shmoe '65. On a Mac keyboard, press shift, alt and closed bracket(]).

  • For alumni: A class year following a person's name indicates that he/she is an alumnus/a of Clark. Do not use "Clark alumnus" in addition to the class year, as in Clark alumnus Tom Dolan '62. It is redundant. If a person attended Clark but did not graduate from Clark, use a lowercase, italicized "x" to indicate that the person did not graduate (Jane Doe x'88).

  • For current students: Use the student's graduation year instead of first-year, sophomore, junior, senior (Jane Doe '06).

  • Graduate degrees: Use a comma; the year comes after the degree (John Smith, Ph.D. '00)

co- —Retain the hyphen when forming nouns, adjectives and verbs that indicate occupation or status: co-author, co-chairman, co-defendant, co-host, co-owner, co-partner, co-pilot, co-signer, co-star, co-worker. Use no hyphen in other combinations: cocurricular, coed, coeducation, coequal, coexist, cooperate, coordinate. (Cooperate and coordinate are exceptions to the rule that a hyphen is used if a prefix ends in a vowel and the word that follows begins with the same vowel.)

coach—(Sports) Capitalize when used as part of an official title or when used without a modifier: Coach Joe Brady, Head Basketball Coach Pat Glispin. If coach is preceded by a modifier, use lowercase: third base coach Jimmy Jones. Lowercase coach when it stands alone, follows the name, or is set off from the name by commas: The coach, Karen Farrell, played volleyball in college.

cocurricular—no hyphen

coed, coeducation, coeducational—no hyphen (see co-).

commas—In quotes, commas always go inside the second quotation mark — no exceptions. Use a comma in numbers greater than 999: Clark has more than 2,000 students.

compound modifiers (a.k.a compound adjectives)—When a compound modifier-two or more words that express a single concept-precedes a noun, use hyphens to link all the words in the compound except the adverb very and all adverbs that end in -ly: a first-quarter touchdown, a bluish-green dress, a full-time job, a tuition-free year, a liberal-arts college, a high-school teacher, a know-it-all attitude, fifth-year-free program, an easily remembered rule.
Phrases used as modifiers are normally hyphenated: a happy-go-lucky person, a here-today-gone-tomorrow attitude. However, a foreign phrase used as a modifier is not hyphenated: a bona fide offer, a per diem allowance.
Scientific compounds are usually not hyphenated: carbon monoxide poisoning, dichromatic acid solution. Many combinations that are hyphenated before the noun are not hyphenated when they occur after a noun: The team scored in the first quarter. His attitude suggested he knew it all. Your fifth year will be tuition free.
Compound modifiers formed of capitalized words should not be modified: Old English poetry, Third World country, Iron Age manufacturer.

continual/continuous—Continual means a steady repetition. Continuous means unbroken, uninterrupted, steady.

Clark course prefixes—should be all caps. For example: GOVT not Govt; HIST not Hist.; PSYC not Psyc.

commencement—Only capitalize if used in the formal name: 75th Commencement.

convocation—only capitalize in official title, the 50th Convocation


course work—Noun, two words.

crew—Sports. Clark crew or Clark rowing team, never Clark crew team.

crew (rowing) terms—Sports. bow, coxless, coxswain, ergometer, experienced, Head of the Charles, New England Fours Championship, novice, oarsman, oarsmen, port, regatta, shell, skull, starboard, stern.

cross country—Sports. Two words when referring to the proper name of the sport (running) He runs cross country; otherwise, hyphenate when used as a compound modifier when it precedes the noun it modifies: cross-country team, cross-country skiing, cross-country runner.

cross-referenced—Not cross-listed.

currently/presently—Currently means now; presently is in the near future.


data—takes a plural verb.

data processing—Noun and adjective; do not hyphenate if used as an adjective.

dates—always use Arabic figures without st, nd, rd, or th. For example: The event is planned for May 8.

daylong—One word.

departments—Uppercase formal names (History Department).

decision-making—Hyphenated in all uses.

Developing nations—Use instead of "Third World."

different—Takes the preposition "from," not "than."

directions—Lowercase north, south, northeast, northern, etc. when they indicate compass direction. Capitalize when they designate regions (the Northeast.)

diving terms—Sports. armstand dive, back dive, forward dive, free, inward dive, layout (n., adj.), pike, platform, reverse dive, straight, tuck, twisting dive, springboard.

dollars—always use a "$" followed by a numeral. (Admission is $5. The goal is $100 million.)

ECAC—Sports. Eastern College Athletic Conference. Spell out on first reference.

e-commerce—do not capitalize.

email—But for all other words describing electronic items, use a hyphen: e-commerce, e-newsletter, e-reader, e-book.

emeritus—Denotes individuals who have retired, but retain their rank or title. Not all retired individuals have emeritus status.

entitled, titled—Entitled means a right to do something; titled means what something is called. Charles Dickens wrote a book titled "A Tale of Two Cities."

faculty—In customary American usage, faculty is a collective noun taking a singular verb when referring to faculty as a group. (The faculty is researching the topic.) The plural can be expressed by using "faculty members": Faculty members are gathering.

farther, further—Farther refers to physical distance. Further is an extension of time or degree.

fewer, less—Use fewer for individual items (items that can be counted); less for bulk, time or quantity. (Fewer than 100 students attended; I will be there in less than 10 minutes.)

field hockey terms—Sports. corner hit, free hit, obstruction, offside, penalty corner, penalty stroke, push back (n.)

field work—Two words. Definition: Work done or observations made in the field, as opposed to that done or observed in a laboratory or classroom.

fieldwork—One word. Noun. Military. Definition: Any temporary fortification erected in the field.

financial aid (noun), financial-aid (adj.)

first annual—No such thing. An event becomes "annual" when it is held every year for more than one year.

focused, focusing—Use the spelling with one "s" not two (not focussed, focussing)

Foreign Languages and Literatures Department

fractions—Spell out amounts of less than one using hyphens. Convert anything over one to decimals. One-quarter of the year. 1.5 percent.

Frances L. Hiatt School of Psychology—Not Francis.

free will—Noun. freewill is an adjective.

French Canadian—A noun. Hyphenate when used as a compound modifier (adjective). French Canadians in Boston, French-Canadian music.

fundraising—Fundraising, fundraiser; one word in all cases.

GMAT—Acronym for Graduate Management Admissions Test (not G.M.A.T.)

GPA—Acronym for grade-point average. Do not use G.P.A. or gpa or g.p.a.

grade-point average—Not grade-point-average or grade point average; may also use GPA.

GRE—Acronym for Graduate Record Examination (not G.R.E.)

GSOM—Acronym for Graduate School of Management

Grass roots—Noun; hyphenate as an adjective (a grass-roots effort).

gray—Not grey.

Harrington House—Officially the Frances A. Harrington House. Use Harrington House in most references.

high school (noun), high-school (adj.)—See compound modifiers

hyphens—Use when two words are combined as an adjective, which precedes the noun it modifies (except with very or words ending in -ly). First-hand knowledge. Blue-green sea. (See compound modifiers.)

Idrisi—Not an acronym. Capitalize the first letter only.

Inc. - Do not set off with commas when used as part of a corporate name: Time Warner Inc.

innings—Sports. For example, first inning, seventh-inning stretch.

internet—Always capitalized. Abbreviated Net.

irregardless—There is no such word.

its/it's—Its is possessive (The University reached its goal.). It's is a contraction of "it is" (It's a sunny day).

Jr., Sr.—Do not precede with a comma (Joe Johnson Jr.) except in business correspondence.

lacrosse terms—attackman, defenseman, flipoff (n.), midfielder, Pilgrim League (league members include Babson College, Clark University, Lasell College, Maine Maritime Academy, MIT, Massachusetts Maritime Academy, Norwich University, Springfield College, Western New England College and Wheaton College).

Latin-American—Noun and adjective (hyphenate).

letter grades—use capital letter and the corresponding plus or minus symbol (A+, B-, C); not A plus, B minus.

liberal arts—Noun. Hyphenate when used as an adjective if it precedes the noun it modifies: liberal-arts education. (See compound modifiers)

map making—Two words, no hyphen. Can use the word mapping as an alternative.

master's degree—See academic degrees.

Master of Science in Professional Communication—not Communcations.

magazine, newspaper titles—Capitalize essential words in title; italicize. No quotation marks. (The article was in Time magazine and the journal Nature. The professor was interviewed by The Boston Globe.)

Middle East—Middle Eastern (adj.)

millions, billions—Use figures with million or billion in all except casual cases (I'd like to make a billion dollars). Decimals are preferred, but do not go beyond two decimals (7.51 million persons; 7,542,500 persons). Do not mix millions and billions in the same figure (2.6 billion not 2 billion 600 million).

months—When a month is used with a specific date, abbreviate Jan., Feb., Aug., Sept., Oct., Nov., and Dec. Spell out when using alone. (Jan.1, 2001; January 2001.)

multicultural center—The Mary McLeod Bethune Multicultural Center.

Native-American—Noun and adjective (hyphenate).

NCAA—Sports. National Collegiate Athletic Association does not need to be spelled out on first reference.

NEWMAC—Sports. Acronym for New England Women's and Men's Conference. Spell out on first reference. The members are: Babson College, Clark University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Mount Holyoke College, Smith College, Springfield College, U.S. Coast Guard Academy, Wellesley College, Wheaton College, Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI). Spell out on first reference.

19th-century—Not nineteenth-century.

newspaper, magazine titles—Capitalize essential words in title; italicize. No quotation marks. (The article was in Time magazine and the journal Nature. The professor was interviewed by The Boston Globe.)

non- —see prefixes and suffixes.

nongovernment - do not hyphenate. (See prefixes and suffixes.)

nongovernmental organization —Use NGO sparingly, and only on the second reference. Usually refers to a nonprofit, humanitarian organization.

nonmajors—do not hyphenate. (See prefixes and suffixes.)

nonprofit—adjective and a noun. Do not hyphenate. (See prefixes and suffixes.)

number cruncher, number crunching—Two words, both nouns.

numbers—Spell out one through nine, except in percentages (2 percent; .06 percent), money (6 cents, $2) and in millions (6 million).

office titles—No apostrophe (Dean of Students Office, Dean of the College Office)

online—One word in all cases when referring to the computer connection term. (The article is available online. Clark has an online store. I do all my shopping online.)

out of bounds—Sports. Adverb.

out-of-bounds—Sports. Adjective.

over, more than—Use "over" for spatial relationships. Use "more than" for amounts (More than $100,000 was raised; I saw more than 10 students at the diner; The quick brown fox jumped over the lazy sleeping dog.).

parentheses—Period outside, unless the phrase within the parentheses is a sentence. (The author is a faculty member.) or She is the author (a faculty member).

Peacemaker, peacemaking—One word, not peace-maker or peace-making.

percent—Spell out word, except in headlines. Always use figure with percents (2 percent).

periods—LEAVE ONLY ONE SPACE AFTER PERIODS. If you are in the habit of leaving two spaces, you can go back and change all of them at once by using the "Find and Replace" feature of the word processor. Always put commas and periods inside your quotation marks. "It's a beautiful day outside," she said.

Ph.D.—See academic degrees. For use with a class year, see class year. Plural is Ph.D.s, doctorates, or doctoral degrees.

Pilgrim League—Sports, lacrosse. Members include Babson College, Clark University, Lasell Colege, Maine Maritime Academy, MIT, Massachusetts Maritime Academy, Norwich University, Springfield College, Western New England College, Wheaton College.

planets—Capitalize proper names of planets (Jupiter, Mars, etc.). Capitalize Earth when used as the proper name of our planet. Lowercase when referring to it in a general sense. She is down to earth. The astronauts returned to Earth.

play-by-play—Sports. Noun and adjective. A broadcast rendition of a game.

play off—Sports. Verb.

playoff—Sports. Noun and adjective.

pore/pour—Pore means to gaze intently (she pored over the books); pour means to flow in a continuous stream.

postapartheid—not post-Apartheid. (See prefixes and suffixes.)

postdoctoral—adjective. Do not hyphenate. (See prefixes and suffixes.)


postseason, preseason—Sports. No hyphen. (See prefixes and suffixes.)

predental—rather than predentistry; do not hyphenate. (See prefixes and suffixes.)

prefixes and suffixes—Normally, prefixes and suffixes are joined with a second element without a hyphen, unless doing so would double a vowel or triple a consonant: antianxiety, anticrime, antiwar but anti-intellectual; childlike, taillike but bell-like. Even so, many common prefixes, such as co-, de-, pre-, pro-, and re-, are added without a hyphen although a double vowel is the result: coordinate, preeminent, reenter. 2 A hyphen is also used when the element following a prefix is capitalized or when the element preceding a suffix is a proper noun: anti-American, America-like. 3 The hyphen is usually retained in words that begin with all-, ex- (meaning "former"), half-, quasi- (in adjective constructions), and self-: all-around; ex-governor; half-life but halfhearted, halfpenny, halftone, halfway; quasi-scientific but a quasi success; self-defense but selfhood, selfish, selfless, selfsame. 4 Certain homographs require a hyphen to prevent mistakes in pronunciation and meaning: recreation (enjoyment), re-creation (new creation); release (to let go), re-lease (to rent again).

prelaw—Do not hyphenate (See prefixes and suffixes.)

premedical—Do not shorten to premed; do not hyphenate. (See prefixes and suffixes.)

preprofessional—Do not hyphenate.

preveterinary—Do not shorten to prevet; do not hyphenate. (See prefixes and suffixes.)

presidents of Clark

  • G. Stanley Hall 1888-1920

  • Caroll D. Wright 1902-1909 (college)

  • Edmond D. Sanford 1909-1920 (college)

  • Wallace W. Atwood 1920-1946

  • Howard B. Jefferson 1946-1967

  • Frederick H. Jackson 1967-1970

  • Glenn W. Ferguson 1970-1973

  • Mortimer H. Appley 1974-1984

  • Richard P. Traina 1984-2000

  • John E. Bassett 2000-2009

  • David P. Angel 2009-

principal/principle—Principal is a noun meaning someone or something first in rank, authority, importance of degree. Principle is a noun meaning a fundamental truth, law, doctrine, or motivating force.

Professorships—Endowed professorships at Clark:

  • Lambi and Sarah Adams Chair in History

  • Wallace W. Atwood Visiting Professor

  • Carl and Anna Carlson Chair in Chemistry

  • E. Franklin Frazier Assistant Professor of English

  • Allen M. Glick Chair in Judaic and Biblical Studies

  • Jacob and Frances Hiatt Professor of History

  • Milton and Alice Higgins Chair in Environment and Society

  • George N. and Slema U. Jeppson Chair in Music

  • Robert Aram and Marianne Kaloosdian and Stephen and Marian Mugar Endowed Chair of Armenian Genocide Studies

  • Andrea B. and Peter D. Klein Distinguished Professorship

  • Kneller Professorship in Philosophy

  • Larry and Jan Landry University Professor

  • The Henry J. Leir Chair in Foreign Languages and Cultures

  • Leo L. and Joan Kraft Laskoff Professorship in Economics, Technology and Environment

  • Rose Professorship in Holocaust Studies and Modern Jewish History and Culture

  • Strassler Family Chair for the Study of Holocaust History

professional titles—Capitalize only when the title appears first as an official part of the person's name: President David Angel; David Angel, president of Clark University; David Angel is president of Clark University; the Clark University president, David Angel.

quotation marks—The period and the comma go within the quotation marks—always. The dash, the semicolon, the question mark, and the exclamation point go within the quotation marks when they apply to the quoted matter only. They go outside when they apply to the whole sentence.

rain forest—Noun, two words.

regatta—Noun; plural is regattas. Originally a gondola race in Venice; now a rowing or sailing race, or a series of such races.

renown/renowned—Renown is a noun. Renowned is an adjective.

scores—Sports. use figures exclusively, placing a hyphen between the totals of the winning and losing teams: The Cougars defeated the Bears 4-3. Use a comma in this format: Clark 6, WPI 3.

seasons—Lowercase all seasons: fall, winter, spring, summer.

self-—An exception to the prefix rule. Join to base with a hyphen: self-perception, self-knowledge, self-awareness.

semester courses—Two words.

soccer terms—Sports. center circle, corner kick, charge, forward, free kick, fullback, goal kick, goalie, goalkeeper, halfback, linesman, offside, overhead kick, penalty area, penalty kick, shinguard, striker, sweeper, stopper, wings.

softball terms—Sports. batter's box, catcher's box, dead ball, ground-rule double, on-deck circle, sacrifice fly, windup

staff—Staff is a collective noun taking a singular verb, when referring to staff as a group. (Staff is eligible for the benefit.) Use "staff members" for plural: Staff members plan to be on hand.

stakeholder—One word.

states—Only use postal abbreviations for states (e.g., MA, NH, CA) when used with a mailing address. Within text, spell out when a state name stands alone, or, when used with town or city name, abbreviate as follows (but never abbreviate Alaska, Hawaii, Idaho, Iowa, Maine, Ohio, Texas, or Utah):

Ala. Md. N.D.
Ariz. Mass. Okla.
Ark. Mich. Ore.
Calif. Minn. Pa.
Colo. Miss. R.I.
Conn. Mo. S.C.
Del. Mont. S.D.
Fla. Neb. Tenn.
Ga. Nev. Vt.
Ill. N.H. Va.
Ind. N.J. Wash.
Kan. N.M. W.Va.
Ky. N.Y. Wis.
La. N.C. Wyo.

streets—Capitalize street when used in proper names (Main Street, Downing Street). Exception: two streets named together (Park and Main streets). Abbreviate street only when used in a formal street address: 130 Woodland St. The house is located on Woodland Street.

student-athlete —Hyphenate in all uses. Do not use scholar-athlete.

swimming terms—Sports. backstroke, breaststroke, butterfly, flip turn, freestyle, gravity wave, lane, lanelines, long course, medley relay, negative split, Olympic-style pool, relay exchange, roll, short-course pool, sidestroke, split, swimmer's ear, touchpad.

tennis terms—Sports. ace, ad-in, ad-out, back court, backhand, baseline, center mark, deuce, dink, double fault (n.), double-fault (v.), drop shot, earned point, error, fault (n., v.), foot fault (n.), foot-fault (adj., v.), forecourt, ground stroke, hard court (n.), hard-court (adj.), hold serve, kill, let, linesman, lob, love, match point, midcourt (n., adj.), poach, seed service line, set, set point, smash, straight sets, volley.

that/which—Use that and which to refer to inanimate objects and animals without names. Use that for essential clauses, important to the meaning of a sentence, and without commas ("I remember the first day that I came to Clark"). Use which for nonessential clauses, where the pronoun is less necessary, and use commas ("The team, which finished last a year ago, is in first place"). Tip: If you can drop the clause and not lose the meaning of the sentence, use which; otherwise, use that. A which clause is surrounded by commas; no commas are used with that clauses.

theater—Not theatre, unless it is used in a proper name. However, the Theatre Arts Program is part of the Visual and Performing Arts Department. Little Center Theater. Richard C. Daniels Theater.

Third World—Avoid use of this term. "Developing nations" is more appropriate when referring to the economically developing nations of Africa, Asia and Latin America. Do not confuse with "nonaligned," which is a political term.

time—Use a.m. and p.m. 12 noon is redundant; instead use 12 p.m. Use 1 p.m., not 1:00 p.m. For time spans, use from 1 to 2 p.m. or 1-2 p.m.; 11 a.m. to 2 p.m. "Noon" and "midnight" are acceptable but do not put 12 in front of either word. Midnight is part of the day that is ending, not the one that is beginning.


toward—Not towards.

University—Capitalize when referring specifically to Clark. Clark University; the University.


upward—Not upwards.

U.S.—Use as an adjective (John Smith retired from the U.S. Army.). Use United States as a noun. (Clark is one of the smallest research universities in the United States.)

vis-à-vis—hyphenate and use accent mark

volleyball terms—Sports. advantage, attack line, backcourt, backline, back row (n.), back-row (adj.), block, center line, collective screen, dink, front row (n.), front-row (adj.), rally-point (adj.), red card, serve, service zone, set spike, yellow card.

Washington, D.C.

weights—Use figures: The baby weighed 6 pounds, 7 ounces. She had a 6-pound, 7-ounce boy.


webcast—One word, lowercase.

webmaster—One word, lowercase; "Clark has a webmaster."

Web page—Two words, with Web always capitalized. "Web" is always capitalized when used as a single word (Web page; Web link; website).

website—One word, lowercase; but capitalize "Web" when used alone ("Web page").

who/whom—Use who and whom for references to human beings and to animals with names. Use who when someone is the subject of a sentence, clause or phrase. (The man who rented the room left the window open. Who is there?) Use whom when someone is the object of a verb or preposition. (The woman to whom the room was rented left the window open. Whom do you wish to see?)

worldview—One word.

yearlong—One word.


Clark University logo—All University publications use the official Clark logo. Learn more about the usage guidelines.

Recycling symbol—All Clark printing should be on recycled paper and labeled with a discreet recycled and recyclable symbol at the bottom of the last page. Recycle symbols are available from Marketing and Communications or from a printer.


Unless otherwise negotiated, Clark owns unlimited reproductive rights for any slides, prints or video a vendor shoots while under contract with Clark. This includes online use. When possible, the vendor will receive a credit line, if not on the photo itself, then within the publication. Additional copies of slides, prints or video must be purchased from the vendor, unless otherwise negotiated.

  • Photos used by outside organizations: Do not release Clark photographs to organizations outside of Clark University. If outside organizations want to use a photo from a Clark publication, they must contact the photographer for permission and to purchase the rights to use the image. Contact Marketing and Communications for more information.

  • Historical photos: All requests for historical Clark photos should be referred to University Archives.