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Bidartondo, M. I., D. Redecker, I. Hijri, A. Wiemken, T. D. Bruns, L. Dominguez, A. Sersic, J. R. Leake, and D. J. Read. Epiparasitic plants specialized on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Nature 419:389-392.

Bidartondo, M. I., T. D. Bruns, M. Weiss, C. Sergio, and D. J. Read. 2003. Specialized cheating of the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis by an epiparasitic liverwort. Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. B 270:835-842. Cullings, K. W., T. M. Szaro, and T. D. Bruns. 1996. Evolution of extreme specialization within a lineage of ectomycorrhizal epiparasites. Nature 379:63-66.

Chapela, I. H., S. A. Rehner, T. R. Schultz, and U. G. Mueller. 1994. Evolutionary history of the symbiosis between fungus-growing ants and their fungi. Science 266:1691-1694.

Currie, C., B. Wong, A. E. Stuart, T. R. Schultz, S. A. Rehner, U. G. Mueller, G.-H. Sung, J. W. Spatafora, and N. A. Strauss. 2003. Ancient tripartite coevolution in the attine ant-microbe symbiosis. Science 299: 386-388.

Gould, S. J. 2992. A humongous fungus among us. Natural History July, 1992, p. 10-14.

Gargas, A., P. T. DePriest, M. Grube, and A. Tehler. 1995. Multiple origins of lichen symbiosis suggested by ssu rDNA phylogeny. Science 268: 1492-1495.

Hibbett, D. S. 2002. When good relationships go bad. Nature 419:345-346.

Hibbett, D. S., L.-B. Gilbert, and M. J. Donoghue. 2000. Evolutionary instability of ectomycorrhizal symbioses in homobasidiomycetes. Nature 407: 506-508.


Lutzoni, F., M. Pagel, and V. Reeb. 2001. Major fungal lineages are derived from lichen symbiotic ancestors. Nature 411:937-940.

Mueller, U. G., S. A. Rehner, and T. R. Schultz. 1998. The evolution of agriculture in ants. Science 281: 2034-2038.

Nikoh, N., and T. Fukatsu. 2000. Interkingdom host jumping underground: phylogenetic analysis of entomoparasitic fungi of the genus Cordyceps. Mol. Biol. Evol. 17: 629-638.


Smith , M., J. Bruhn and J. Anderson, 1992. The fungus Armillaria bulbosa is among the largest and oldest living organisms. Nature 356:428-431.

Taylor, D. L., and T. D. Bruns. 1997. Independent, specialized invasions of ectomycorrhizal mutualism by two nonphotosynthetic orchids. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 94:4510-4515.

Vandenkoornhuyse, P., S. L. Baldauf, C. Leyval, J. Straczek, and J. P. W. Young. 2002. Extensive fungal diversity in plant roots. Science 295: 2051.

All content © 2005 AFTOL (Assembling the Fungal Tree of Life Project). Website managed by Jason Slot. AFTOL logo designed by Michal Skakuj. Contact Dr. David Hibbett with any questions. This page was last modified on 08/31/05. Development of this site is being supported by a grant from the National Science Foundation for research in fungal evolutionary biology (NSF award number DEB-0228657).