On the Classification of the British Stone Age Industries,

and Some New and Little Known Well-Marked Horizons and Cultures

W. J. Lewis Abbott, F.G.S., F.R.A.I.

The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 1911

[458] With Plates XLV-LXIV.

Part I

Since Lord Avebury's first division of the Stone ages into older and newer, paleolithic and neolithic, various attempts at further subdivisions have been made. Westropp suggested that we should retain the term palaeolithic for the chipped implements of the gravels, and the term neolithic for the polished tools only: employing the term mesolithic for the fine chipped "surface" implements which had not been ground. 1 The finding of these two latter classes in constant association precluded the acceptance of the term mesolithic, and it was for some time disregarded. Subsequently it was advocated, particularly by my friend the late Mr. John Allen Brown 2 for a class of implements which, from their unaltered or bleached condition and mode of occurrence, were connected with neoliths, while the method of their working, their heavy outline, and sometimes general form, associated them with palaeoliths; these he regarded as belonging to a period intermediate between the palaeolithic and neolithic.

Unfortunately with our minds so imbued with the great law of "onward and upward," which we see, upon the whole, pervading man's tenancy upon earth, we are apt to think that the evolution of culture has progressed along a line of unbroken chronological sequence: nothing could be more misleading. As an example of how far wrong such an idea can lead one we have only to read the hopeless labyrinth of error into which Westropp led himself in his seven ages. 3 There can never be a universal contemporaneity of an "industry," and any attempt to make similar "cultures" of the same age over widely separated areas will receive but little support from the facts of the field. We have assumed, not without great justification, that our river valleys have been slowly eroded by the great arteries of the country; which, in their seaward passages deposited, upon the shoulders of the valleys, the gravels and sands in which the worked flints are. found. That these gradually became of less and less altitude, as the river wore [459] down its bed, so that the implements at the greatest number of feet above O.D., or the present level of the nearest stream are always the oldest, and vice versa. 4 No wonder that all attempts at the classification of phases of culture based upon this method alone should have failed.

We must for ever bear in mind the facts of differential and intermittent elevation and depression, as pointed out by my colleagues Messrs. Hinton and Kennard, 5 Messrs. Kennard and Jackson, 6 and several others., and that in the progression of river curves deposits of all ages are relaid again and again.

For several decades I have felt puzzled to account for the idea of the classification of industries solely upon altitudes ever being held. If we consider North-Western Europe at the Early Pleistocene Period stretching away into the Atlantic, and northwards to the Faroes drained by the Great North River, which received such immense tributaries as the Pre-Severn-Proto-Thames from the west, the Rhine, the Elbe, and probably the drainers of the Baltic area, and other great arteries, stretching away to Lapland, and the present Arctic Circle, we can form some idea of the vast amount of water it must at times have carried; waters which not only represented rainfall, but the melting of the Continental glaciers; and with a supply so immense, and so intermittent, we can realise what bursting of former boundaries there must at times have been; and what a record was written in Dogger Bank and other land, now covered by the North Sea. But the idea that strikes us most is that, with an estuary in such a high latitude, and waters already charged with the ice of which they were born, its mouth must, more than once, have been choked up with ice, and the waters must have been ponded back, up the present valleys and bordering lowlands; 7 under which conditions, not only would our flood loams and brick-earths have been deposited, whose altitudes would have been determined by the volume of the flood-waters, but gravels would have been picked up, old land-surfaces swept of their surface-debris of various ages, whether they were the products of sub-aerial denudation or the flints worked by man, and left on the surface in any of the antecedent ages to be relaid in those heterogeneous and in many ways puzzling deposits we call River Drifts.

But not only have the great Continental phenomena materially affected and disturbed the vertical sequence of our River Deposits; in different areas there have been tectonic movements and phenomena attending differential elevation, depression, and denudation, which have contributed to destroy a consecutive altitudinal chronology, 8 In one of the valleys, to which I hope to refer on a future occasion—the Darenth— certain places and altitudes we get well-established industries, and the relies of peculiar phases of culture ; but in [460] others, these and various other industries are hopelessly mixed up. In the early pre-Holmesdalian days the south-east prolongation of this river was over the counterscarp from the Weald, 9 passing what were afterwards the shoulders of the then up-born Shode, into which implements—which our Continental friends would call both chellean and acheulian—found their way; with the formation of the Holmesdale valley implements of these types were carried north-eastward. Long before this in the west of the area, in what appear to have been times of climatic severity, the surface of the land was being torn up and carried gorge-wards, and the stones left stuck at all angles in an unstratified condition by the transporting agent with which were swept the somewhat rude types of the works of early man. Subsequently the western limb flowed under more tranquil and genial conditions, depositing evenly stratified beds of gravel at Limpsfield, but nevertheless cutting into the older gravels, and carrying their contents further down the valley. Then a new channel was cut back, or originated by an earth movement (seen at Dry Hill): a then recent later-palaeolithic land-surface was attacked; but some of it was left, and the fresh implements reposing, there to-day 10 tell the tale of how their unworn brethren are found in the valley below mixed with implements of all other ages.

Upon the Continent sometimes so rich in troglodytes of various cultures systems of classification have been numerous: but I think we must admit that, however well these systems fit the areas upon which they were founded, they are hopelessly inapplicable to the conditions obtaining in this country.

From what has been adduced above—and many more reasons against the idea could be brought forward—I submit we may at once dispose of the idea of a classification based upon altitudes alone, seeing that the laying down of River Deposits has not always formed an orderly unbroken succession from the highest to the lowest.

Further, there are reasons why we cannot trust to contemporaneity even of similar industries. Palaeolithic man was a hunter, not a settler in the strict sense of the word, he had no other home than the following of the spoor of the monarchs of the horns and antlers. He was ideally a nomad, with no incentive to civilization, he made his weapons of the chase as he had seen his father and his brothers; and his offspring did the same. Now and then in the history of the race a better flint-worker would appear, who might work in his own manner, and thus originate a new method of working. But all palaeolithic men did not benefit by this outburst of simple genius, only an infinitesimal few ever knew of it, but in the absence of extensive social intercommunication, went on as their forefathers had done before them, and remained in ignorance of what we can recognize to-day, and trace the wanderings of such pioneers by the vestiges of their peculiar work which they have left behind.

[461] All palaeolithic men at any particular time were not working in the same manner, nor did the flint industry develop on the same lines, even in not very distant areas. Let us take a very early example. One of the oldest deposits in this country which can with good assurance be said to contain man-worked flints is now to be found (amongst other places) to the north of Wrotham upon the plateau at Stanstead. It is now a deep-seated gravel, with no surface indications save at some distance off, where a very early palaeolithic valley cuts through it. Here, about 10 feet below the summit of the shoulders of the valley downwards, relics of this old deposit can be found sparsely distributed over the surface. At Parsonage Farm, beneath some 8 feet of sand and loam, it is to be found in an undisturbed state. It is a gravel in a dense iron pan. Clearing off the iron and manganese we find many of the flints are hard worn; and some freshly broken under the vicissitudes of gravel making. There are further other flints which, from their being broken in a manner so much less like the work of nature, and so exactly like the work of man, with such a constancy of type, that we feel they are the work of an intelligent being. But as in the Red Crag when deep-seated, the iron has. not yet been oxydized to the beautiful red-yellow-brown characteristic of the plateau flints, when formed in the next division. In this stansteadian stage the flaked surfaces of the flints are not much altered, and are of a dark chalcedonic green-black-brown. The flakes have been removed, not by the rounded hammerstone, but by flippings or batterings, in a way which can be imitated to-day. Further, the characteristic forms are also identical with the product.. of the next, deposit, the lower ashian, where the characteristic almost rectangular comparatively small edge-work and quaint forms are exactly the same: the only difference is that the deposit having been in contact with meteoric waters the iron has become oxydized, giving the flints the characteristic "old brown" colour. The next deposit in point of culture is the fawkhamian, or transitional from prepalaeolithic to the palaeolithic: here we have the work of the rounded hammerstone—a discovery vying in importance with the discovery of the metals. But oddly enough although man uses the rounded hammer-stone to obtain his bulbed and parallel worked flakes (or blades), he worked their outlines into those use-incomprehensible forms, with the small "rectangular" edge-working, which latter work only decreases, as the rounded hammer-stone work increases. In the next stage (in this locality), the upper ashian, we have really good fairly fine work palaeolithic bouchers. Here then, we have the transitional from the mainly edge-worked pre-palaeolithic weapons through the [Vide p. 465.] heteroclastic fawkhamian transitionals, to the [Vide p. 465.] homoclastic palaeoliths.

In other places, on all sides of this, only a few miles distant, we get a passage industry, for which many years ago, I proposed the term archaeolithic, consisting of exceedingly rude [Vide p. 465.] megistoclastic, [Vide p. 466.] meroclastic work, which improves, and develops into [Vide p. 465.] holoclastic typical palaeoliths.

[462] Further, with some peoples there has been a persistency of older types coming up with newly discovered forms and methods of working. An example of this is furnished by the fairlightian culture, which I hope to describe on a future occasion. I have no doubt that the first weapon of offence and defence used by the anthropoidea was a wooden club, similar to that carried by the gorilla to-day: the first object to be gained was an extended reach, and the next a heavier blow. ---But a club was too long for an effect at close quarters; a hand hammer-stone would give the heavier blow required, and deal with more refractory objects. If we take a pebble in the hand and strike a hard stone with it one, two, three or more flakes are split off from the striking place, sometimes at one blow, and a point put on, which makes it a very effective implement. Now, it is remarkable that so greatly was this tool appreciated by some peoples that it lasted down into historic times. From the hand it was only natural to transfer it to the end of the club, and thus acquire both extended reach, and a heavier and more effective blow; and the studded clubs, or stone-set maces as they are sometimes called, lasted till quite the historic period in Egypt. I know of no tool so spasmodically distributed as the club-stud. I have found very fine examples in the Cromer Forest Bed, under, and in various glacial deposits in England and Ireland, and in the glacial and upper gravels at Limpsfield: in various River Deposits from the highest down to the lowest. But the most important find of them was in the Ickelsham-Fairlight drift, where they were by far the most numerous implement. I have also obtained them from a very large number of neolithic settlements.

But although the original implement might have been as elementary, and rude, as suggested by use-originated point; and although we frequently find pebbles with only the three or four flakes struck off, the club-studs are more often worked all over; one specimen from the Cromer Forest Bed being brought into shape by a .great deal of parallel flaking in various planes. 11

On the other hand, one often sees them passing insensibly up into the boucher, in a manner that leaves no possible doubt that the classic implement was evolved along these lines, in at least some localities. Yet, further, there are numerous deposits of all ages teeming in varieties of forms, which contain nothing in any way suggestive of these characteristic tools.

Let us now turn for a minute to the all-important subject of different methods of working, which I submit are the most important indications of race relations. .There are, e.g., certain methods of working, which were employed in. the French caves, 12 where they are met with for the first time ; these were employed by the Hastings Kitchen Midden men 13, and wherever the deposits containing the relies of this race are found the same characteristic work is present, whether we travel .northwards into England and Belgium, or southwards into Africa or India. It is [463] true these old fellows had acquired another kind of work before they dispersed, and the two taken together enable us to trace the migrations of this culture.

Another instance might be cited of certain Irish implements, the spatulate scrapers and parallel-knives, ridge-backed, and concave ridge-backed, which find their prototypes in the hard-worn specimens from the Irish gravels of palaeolithic age, but find no counterpart in the gravels of the Thames.

There is also another set of circumstances which meet the prehistoric anthropologist, and it is that man from childhood to maturity, is a phylogenetic. recapitulation ; and more than this, he often evinces the atavism peculiar to his own stock. This can easily be proved by experiment to-day, even if the subjects be adults. When a child begins flint-working he does not. start in the neolithic stage; his "work"—if work you can call it—is essentially [Vide p. 465.] celoclastic, a very large proportion of his blows will resolve; he has no command of the flaking plane. As time goes on he gains some idea—vague though it be—of form; he aims at, say, putting a point upon a boucher; but look at it! It is the only part of the implement that is devoid of all cutting or piercing property. Take any given implement you like, note its operating or work-effecting part. It is all for which the implement was made; all that elaborate work expended upon the other part of the surface is operatingly valueless; the outline so originated may be beautifully symmetrical, and may have cost no end of time and trouble. Yet it is not the cutting-edge, or the piercing point, this forms only a very small part of the implement; but it is nevertheless a part of its general outline. That outline or form becomes stereotyped, and by the young realised even before its uses: the result is that in the developing stages the youngsters try and simulate the outline, but alas! when it comes to the operating part, it is perfectly useless! Further, he starts in the eolithic stage, and he passes through the palaeolithic; although his parents may be in the neolithic. This accounts for the remarkable examples we so often find of palaeolithic work upon useless neoliths. As a lad I had heard of the discoveries of Boucher de Perthes, and living in a flint county tried to make flint implements before I had ever seen one! When, however, I saw them I was disappointed at my work, and at not being able to make anything just like the originals. It took me some time to be able to do this. Subsequently, I found the counterparts of my early attempts, and concluded that the palaeoliths of Boucher de Perthes did not represent man's first attempts at flint working. But as few would accept the conclusions of the great Frenchman, none would admit of mine. Many years later, when Prestwich announced his second great acceptance, my task ,became easier. As a field-worker and collector, I have always felt the importance of the recognition of the fact that in all ages the children and novices have emulated the adults and adroits, but that their lithoclastic ontogeny would recapitulate their phylogeny.

There are numerous other cases that might be quoted to which I dare not refer, [464] indeed I must apologize for going into so many details. I am fully aware that I have already attempted altogether too much for a single paper, but I trust you will admit that I have said enough to show:—

1. That our river-gravels, loams, etc., have not always been deposited in an orderly unbroken vertical sequence from the highest down to the lowest.

2. That in times of excessive flooding and ponding back of waters deposits, would again reach altitudes long since left high and dry, and become associated with other deposits laid down at times of other base levels.

3. That in the history of our river-valleys, implements of various ages become mixed up together.

4. That despite the foregoing, the periods of continual lowering of altitudes coincident with the general excavation of the valleys, might often have been very long, and they now contain not only the relief of definite cultures, but they may sometimes show an orderly evolution.

5. That in the development of the anthropoidea, a multitude of forms, and methods of working of implements, have replaced crude rude attempts, consequently the history of their evolution is written somewhere.

6. That palaeolithic man was ideally nomadic and that different races of men in various states of civilization have lived in the same area at, various times.

7. That the given types of implements have not always developed along, the same lines, nor indeed had a monogenetic origin.

8. That all through the prehistoric ages, children and novices have emulated their elders and the adroits, and in their passage from child to man have recapitulated the stages passed through by the race.

9. That generalized outlines of implements may be obtained by quite distinct methods of working.

10. That neither altitude of the containing deposit, nor general outline or shape of the flint alone, is always of sufficient diagnostic value to enable us to determine the age of an implement, but to do this we must add the nature and method of its working.

11. That in doing this we shall recognize various assemblages of implements. worked in distinctive manners, presenting characteristic forms,, constituting industries or cultures, and that these supported by palaeontology and geology must form the basal units of our classification.

I respectfully submit that it is not likely that a really good classification will be the work of an arm chair critic until very much first class field work has been [465] done. No one can expect to know all about everything, but each of us can work out his own particular field, and then when we have all specialized the features with which we have been made familiar in the field, and the day comes for a general classification, the various groups of implements, representing the different stages of culture, will become susceptible of allocation. I submit that to work out such a desired end, we must first establish well-marked horizons or industries, and for this purpose I propose taking the following, not only because they are for the most part very little known, but because I think they present features, at once both new and suitable for such a purpose.


Unfortunately before we can make a critical examination of the various flint industries or cultures, it is absolutely necessary that we should give far more attention to the laws of flint fracture, and make ourselves familiar with the possibilities and impossibilities of man and nature, and to become fully acquainted with these we must spend years in study and experimental research in connection with the physics of flint fracture, the chemical processes involved, and the details of technique of working, i.e., the diverse methods by which the various results have been, or can be, obtained. For several decades I have been at these, until I have amassed a vast quantity of facts, many of which, no doubt, I ought to have published many years ago. Into these, however, I do not propose to enter on this occasion. I should, however, be grateful if you would allow me to digress a minute to give a few words of explanation of a nomenclature I have found absolutely indispensable to express ideas and to signalize certain facts. At first sight this terminology might appear uncalled for; when, however, one finds themselves called upon to express all the many kinds of "work " that man has produced in the past in order to separate one implement or group of implements from another, its use becomes manifest.

When a worker first begins upon a flint, he finds that hitting it detaches a flake; he watches the direction it takes, but finds he has little or no control over the flaking plane. The flakes removed leave concave pits, and when facets are brought into contact with each other, the interfacettial ridges are high; moreover the blows are not struck with the correct force and many of the flaking planes resolve, with the result that the surface becomes more or less hackly and covered with hollows, for which I propose the term celoclastic.

Ultimately he may get the mastery of the flaking plane, and he may even make it bend over in a desired direction, for which I use the term clinoclastic.

Sometimes he flakes a flint all over = holoclastic.

Sometimes lie flakes a flint only partly = meroclastic.

Sometimes the flakes are the same kind of working or practically all the same size = homoclastic.

Sometimes these are different = heteroclastic.

Sometimes the flakes removed are of immense size: megistoclastic.,

[466] Sometimes the flakes, although comparatively large, are not so immense megaclastic.

Sometimes the flakes are less than the above, but not small = mesoclastic.

Sometimes the flakes are quite small = micoclastic.

Sometimes the flakes are quite minute = microclastic.

Sometimes they are specially lone, and narrow = dolichoclastic.

Sometimes they are quite short = brachyclastic.

When the flint is worked from one side only = monohedral.

When the flint is worked on all sides = holohedral.

It will not be necessary for me to use the whole of these terms on the present occasion, but it will be in describing some of the other industries I, and some of you, have discovered or studied.


In 1885, that for many years ardent field worker, Mr. F. G. J. Spurrell, conducted an excursion of the Geologists' Association 14 round his neighbourhood, on which occasion he showed us some remarkable large flake-implements, obtained in the Ebbsfleet valley, and also some larger tools bearing an immense flake-scar, representing the removal of the flake-implement from the parent. These latter, I believe, he regarded as large nuclei; he also showed us large pointed flints with abraded apices, which he considered were used to remove the "flakes"; but as he exhibited these effecting the work, by a coincidence of the striking and flaking, planes, and as I deeply regret his impaired health prevents him furnishing me with his latest ideas, I am left to conclude that the true nature of these important finds was not realised. In 1892 and many times since in working the Thames valley deposits I recovered some of the [See above.] monohedral implements from the spot. In 1907 more extensive workings were undertaken by the Amalgamated Cement Co., and that enthusiastic collector, Mr. James Cross, who was paying weekly visits to the Thames valley pits, was soon on the spot, and with a zeal quite worthy of the immense amount of unique material recovered, he got together the magnificent collection upon which the next part of this paper is for the most based—for the use of which I shall never be able to thank him sufficiently. A local collector, Mr. Waters, was also a contemporary worker, and he kindly gave a number of some of the beautiful implements to the Hastings and St. Leonards Museum, with which I have the honour to be connected, and also placed his collection at my disposal and gave me all the help in his power, for which I thank him, and also the other collectors who have helped me with specimens and facts. But all other collections put together represent only a fraction in point of numbers or types got together by the indefatigable energy of Mr. Cross. There is only one thing which to me is more wonderful than this collection, and that is that in two [467] years the world failed to realise the importance and meaning of the things he was exhibiting in various parts of the kingdom, and presenting to the various museums. Last summer I wrote the Managing Director of the Combine upon whose property the pit is situated, begging him to have the valuable relics preserved, and I am pleased to say that both he and the next official have since taken an interest in the subject, and have got together an immense collection altogether too large for me to describe separately here. Local legend has it that there was a working here many years ago, into which a drunken man named Baker fell, from which circumstance it is known to some as Baker's' Hole. The Company, however, call it the Southfleet chalk pit 15 There can be no doubt that the deposit at this pit is the most remarkable ever exposed. I hope to deal with the geology of it elsewhere, but it may be necessary to say a few descriptive words.

The heights of Swanscombe are features well known to every traveller in North Kent, rising to ail altitude of nearly 300 feet, and the country behind to nearly 800. From these the present surface slopes, at first very steeply, towards the Thames. At the foot of the heights there are masses of strata out of place and the slickensided surfaces. The high angles at which they are pitched, and the contorted condition show they have been moved along an inclined plane. This pit lies in a direct hue to the low level of the Thames. There is here a depression which appears to have been scooped out of the solid chalk; it is apparently about 5 or 6 acres in extent, but is now filled to the surface level with this, the most remarkable deposit with which I am acquainted. The structure and nature of the rocks, and the various features of the deposit leave no doubt in my mind that a heavy frozen mass, stodgy at base, passed from the highlands, down to the lowlands, ploughing up the surface materials, breeciating the hard chalk as it passed, mixing it and the surface materials into those fascinating festoonings, with which we are so familiar in glaciated areas, sweeping everything before it; the gigantic tusks and probably carcases of the elephants and other large Pleistocene mammalia; the contents of the scarcely vacated palaeolithic settlements, with everything in living freshness; and the deposits containing relies of forgotten races pell-mell into a contorted inextricable mass some 15 feet thick, which must have contained not only hundreds of thousands, but probably millions of the works of man.

A glance at a thousand or so of these latter shows them to fall into three groups:

(a) A perfect industry, the relics of which have long lain in a flint-altering matrix; the alteration commencing in a reticulating manner, gradually stole over the flint, until its surface was in some cases completely altered. These have suffered hard usage, the heavier ones being covered with incipient cones-of-percussion of [468] special form, their angles rasped off, and the faces of many striated. For this industry I propose the term "prestwichian."

(b) Another industry, the relics of which have not moved far; their surfaces are entirely unaltered, the flint is its original black, and the edges of the flakes and tools practically as sharp as on the day they were made; for this industry I propose the term "ebbesfleetian."

(c) Yet again quite a few implements and flaked deep iron-stained, our old familiar friends, "Miltonstreeters" as they are sometimes called, with which we need now not deal.


The peculiar feature about this industry is the extraordinary preponderance of plane-convex or "flake" tools; it is ideally a [Vide p. 466.] monohedral industry. It often attains a weight of considerably over 7 lbs., many give measurements of 20 x 11 x 11 cm. These old folk appear to have selected the heaviest and largest flints procurable and then to have worked them into a more or less flattened heart-shape or discoidal outline—the former predominating (Plates XLV-LI, Figs. 1-14); but instances occur of perfect discs (Fig. 5) with high apical centres on one side; and from their method of working much flatter on the other. They are usually pointed, but there is always a cutting or flaked edge, practically all round. Many of them are worked all over like a huge boucher (or hâche ) of the cordate pattern. They are never of the elongated pointed oval, although they sometimes are heavy ovoids, with both cutting ends broad (Fig. 11). The flaking employed for the roughing out is of the heaviest (megistoclastic ) character: flakes 15-20 cm. being quite common. They are worked sometimes all over with great care, but always from the edges on both faces; usually all the way round, often obtaining excellent symmetry, when they appear as bouchers (Plate XLVII, Figs. 2-4). More often one face is very much the more worked while the other face, except near the edge which is always worked, is in all conditions down to quite rough—or even with rude knobs which often appear purposely left.

As one looks at a collection of these giants, one cannot help thinking what formidable weapons they would have been. There is another vary remarkable feature about these to which I will refer again a little later on. As these implements are so entirely different from any other, I propose a special name for them, and as it is obviously reprehensible to found it upon an assumed use of the implement, of which we certainly know nothing, I feel we cannot do better than follow the precedent of Professor Sollas with the boucher. The most suitable name for these giants appears to me to be that of the giant of prehistoric anthropology. [469] Last year we celebrated two great jubilees, the first that of the epoch-making "Origin of Species," the second its indispensable supplement, viz., the recognition by Prestwich of the discoveries of Boucher de Perthes. As this is an event the importance of which in this country has certainly not received the demonstration it ought to have done, I trust I may be allowed to digress a moment or two, to give some of the facts as I had them on several occasions from the lips of my old master and his esteemed consort the late Lady Prestwich. Up to this time, 1859, the opening of these prehistoric archives and the production of the facts necessary for the establishment of the origin of the anthropoidea, had been scouted, and anathemas and disgrace had been heaped upon the Chevalier's head, from almost every pulpit in Europe.

The years were rolling by, and the great French savant was nearly broken-hearted at his fate; a powerful instrument, for good or evil in the State—-shall we say what?—had become possessed of the fact that a certain workman had chipped some of the stones that the unsuspecting enthusiast had accepted amongst others. It was enough., it was "proved" that Boucher de Perthes had been duped by a fraudulent workman. The Church through the confessional had triumphed. One of the retouched implements is now before me; it is an unquestionably well worked palaeolith, but obviously had no point; this the workman attempted to put on, by removing a few more flakes. It is a thing that, not only in those early days, but even to-day might easily deceive one. But Boucher de Perthes' case did not turn on these specimens. In 1859, Dr. Faulkner and his niece (afterwards Lady Prestwich) were passing through France on their way to the Gibraltar caves, and stopping en route to see the recent discoveries of bones and flints, immediately wrote off to the enthusiastic young Prestwich to come and see, which he did., and having done so and satisfied himself with the bonâ fides of the claim, lost no time in getting thither the leading prehistorians of the day, viz., Sir John Lubbock, Sir Jno. Evans and Professor Rupert Jones, and subsequently many others, and from that time the facts of the greater antiquity of man were accepted, and such strides has the science made, that we can scarcely realize that only last year we celebrated the jubilee of the recognition of the validity of this great branch of science. Professor Sollas has pointed out that we have the precedent of the physicist in the ohm, the watt, the farad, etc., but we have also a precedent of anthropology herself—although in that case a very unhappy one—in classing together a number of different implements, bronze as well as stone, under the name of the people who were supposed to use them—the Celt. 16 I therefore propose that we call this characteristic implement a "prestwich." It is a name to distinguish it from all other objects, and is assuredly far more justifiable than assuming a fanciful use for it, to which it may never have been put, and misnaming it accordingly.

But to revert to the other special feature always present in a prestwich, which [470] immediately separates it from a giant boucher, of somewhat the same outline, on the one hand, and the huge axes and side choppers on the other. One spot on the edge of the prestwich usually at the base, but on exceedingly rare occasions at the point (Fig. 3a), is worked with as rectangular work as possible, so as to serve as a striking face, upon which was administered the blow of a giant, that took off a, remarkable perfect plano-convex implement. The idea was evidently to take it off in a plane just above the periphery of the parent-tool. This often resulted in an implement of extraordinary symmetry, more or less oval or pointed, or even lanceolate. Sometimes these attained the size of 17 x 15 x 3 cm. Often they were even more. If we bear in mind the mode of manufacture, we shall realize that these will have one huge flake-face subtending a well-worked flake-face, but that while the flake-face has one immense bulb of percussion, with ever extending conchoidal rings, this flaking plane truncates the original edge working, so that in an ideal specimen, there will not be a single pit-of-percussion on the whole of the flaked-face. Now it is evident, that this detaching blow must have been one, not only of great force, to have split the flint, but to do so evenly in the face of areas of varying resistance, of great skill also. Sometimes it would result in an implement of the most perfect symmetry, with a knife-sharp unbroken edge; presenting now a beautiful rounded oval, and now so pointed as to be almost lanceolate, 20 cm. long, and not more than 11 cm. in its widest part, and not more than 2.5 cm. at its thickest; or even more graceful than this, of perfect bi-symmetry tapering to a point; or still further, assuming on very rare occasions more knife-like forms, with more parallel sides and broader point; but these latter may perhaps have been more the result of accident than intention, caused by a slight in-running of the flaking plane. At other times they would be obovate, and although the cutting edge would extend uniformly all round, yet the broad cutting edge suggests a prophecy of the broad front-cutting edge of later days. To obtain this shape the prestwich was worked to a rectangular striking face at the point (Fig. 3a), and instead of the offspring being dislodged from the butt-end, was of course struck off from the point.

We have already pointed out the dexterity required in the striking of this blow: it is evident that several difficulties would beset the operation. In one the blow would not be struck low enough (Fig. 31), and the detached piece would be too small ; in another it might be struck too low, and the flaking-plane might then lie below the periphery, with the result that the prestwich itself would be reduced to a mere flake, and the detached portion would be a huge thing, which might be mistaken for a prestwich; a difference in this and the latter, however, would be that, whereas in the prestwich the flake-face is always more or less concave, with a pit-of-percussion, this would have its complementary flake-face more or less convex with a bulb-of-percussion.

Then again, the blow might have been struck in the correct place, but owing to its not being of sufficient force, and not quite properly directed, the flaking-plane [471] might "resolve," i. e., after starting and continuing for a number of centimetres in a right direction, would suddenly resolve, and turn round, cross the peripheral plane, and rush off for the other face of the prestwich; making it very much like the previous case, when the blow was struck too low, only that, as is invariably the rule the (curved) flake-face of the prestwich, would be more or less concave, and with a pit-of-percussion, the converse of the other implement.

Now as these [Vide, p. 466.] monohedral tools are as characteristic as the prestwich, and as one was born of the other, I think we may well name them after one of the greatest anthropologists of which our science has been able to boast, viz., the late Sir John Evans. I therefore propose for this characteristic implement the name of an "evans."

The "evans," then, differs from a plano-convex flake-implement, regardless of size, in that the working of the convex face has been truncated by the flake-face, which latter has cut away the pits-of-percussion. We shall again refer more in detail to these beautiful implements, but the foregoing features must be borne in mind, in order that we do not confound them with the large ridge-back flakes or blades, produced in the ordinary way, which may sometimes resemble them in peripheral outline. Naturally, the edge of the evans was likely to become blunted if used, and then successive secondary, tertiary or other reworkings would be added. But it is generally easy to recognize their subsequent workings if they be present: but the significant feature about these is, that they scarcely ever do show signs of use; they appear to have been made with an immense amount of trouble, and then preserved, and the kind of edge they present is by no means the right one, to effect the work which so large a tool might be expected to perform.

As, however, we look at a collection of prestwiches beside other very similar groups of equally massive tools, some of which are heavy bouchers, often of practically identical initial outline, with piercing points, cutting edges, and heavy butts; and the other groups of almost identical outlines, some with a rather more axe-like aspect, others a perfect broad cutting-edge axe; and note the fact that both these latter groups are worked in the same general manner, while the prestwich is worked so differently, we are tempted to seek an origin for it. When an evans has been removed from a prestwich, the operation has not in any way altered its efficacy as a useable implement. May there not be something more in this? May it not represent an unknown ceremony, a bargain, a covenant, similar to a tally? When a "tally" is broken or cut, conditions of the agreement can be claimed, by showing that the retained portion "tallies" with the other. May not these prestwiches have been taken by the chiefs, or even the ordinary individuals in cases of agreements, and the evans split off and given to the other party to the agreement, in which case either party could claim "rights" if the evans and prestwich tallied. It might also have been used by the men of the time, in taking a wife, to whom they might have presented the evans, while they retained the [472] prestwich, and after long years of separation consequent upon the circumstances of life, in the possibly polygamous days, might have recognized a wife if her evans tallied. It might also have served as a sign of membership of cult or clan; but still more likely its real meaning yet awaits discovery.


In order to get a better idea of the real nature of the prestwich, a further detailed description may be permissible—Plates XLV and XLVI show the two sides of a good typical prestwich. The former shows it to have been worked all over (holoclastic ), and that with some amount of pains and care. The surface is very much altered and glossy, and is now of a greenish-grey colour, and since it was caught up by this deposit, it has been the victim of thermal fissure, and is now in numerous pieces, while others are nearly separated, one piece from the centre of the reverse side has been lost, and four or five from the obverse. No one can look at this without realizing that it is really a well-made implement, and that its centre would certainly not have been worked off so well (or even at all) had not the implement been intended for use—Plates XLV-XLVII emphasize this point. In this and every other prestwich the edge-working is alternate, producing remarkably wavy edges, all the way round. I am tempted to call especial attention to the finish of the reverse side. Had some of the examples been the only ones with which one had met, one might have concluded that the working of the second, or reverse face, was necessary to reduce a nucleus into such a form that an evans with a good cutting-edge and symmetrical outline might result; but the [Vide p. 466] holoclastic state of the specimens such as these, quite preclude such a possibility. Nor could the removal of the evans have been to reduce the general thickness of the implement, firstly, from the fact that many prestwiches, even before the removal of the evans, must have been quite thin. Plate XLVII, Fig. 2, is not more than 3 cm. in thickness, and probably was never much more than four; secondly, when we remember that it was always, without a single exception, the low worked-face that was removed, we can be absolutely certain on the point. Moreover, there is often a great care displayed on the thickening of the base (Plate XLVII, Figs. 3 and 4). The discoids (Plate XLVII, Fig. 5) served as excellent hand choppers, and the removal of the apical flakes clearly shows that the tool was intended for use.

Turning to the obverse or evans side of the prestwich, Plate XLVIII, Figs. 4a and 5a, are the best normal examples; Fig. 5a might with better effect have been struck a little lower, and a larger evans produced, but the blow was a very smart clean one. Fig. 4a was in perfect position but hardly sufficiently strong; Fig. 2a has since had a flake or two removed from the left bottom corner. Fig. 3a is an example of one struck from the point; unfortunately it was by no means a perfect blow, although the flaking is superb. It was struck nearly on the periphery, and further a little oblique. The workman's pick has since carried away the original [473] pit-of-percussion. Figs. 2a-5a all show the megistoclastic [Vide p. 465.] scar indicative of the removal of an evans. Although I have carefully examined a very large number of prestwiches, I cannot say that their battered-about condition would lead me to think they were in situ in the Ebbsfieet cache, and although hundreds of evanses nearly fit evans-sears on prestwiches, up to the present time I have never found two parts of the original, and indeed I shall be greatly surprised, from the evidence I have, if we ever do so.

I have, however, made a plaster cast to show the shape of a lost evans (Plate L, Fig. 13). Plate XLIX, Figs. 6-9, shows the obverses of a further series of' prestwiches with the megistoclastic evans-sears, from exceptionally thin specimens(Fig. 6) to very thick ones (Fig. 9), which is especially so. They also show the unmistakable implemental outline of the prestwiches. Plate L, Fig. 10, shows an example of a prestwich of the large, circular-pointed axe form. It is worked to an excellent cutting edge for the greater part of the way round it. A curious. feature about this is, that the evans detaching blow was struck with a stone with a second projection upon it, which brought off a flake that started at two points. Such a result might have been obtained by two distinct blows; but the ultimate coincidence of the conchoidal waves, the interference at the initial phases, and the resultant éraillures on the overlapping areas, point to a case of plane-capture, so that it is fairly certain that this is the result of one blow with a stone, upon which there were two projections. Fig. 11 shows the rounded end ovoid axe form prestwich. It is more of the hammer-axe type, being very thick. The front cutting-edge is quite broad, and the working at the opposite edge is at a very high. angle; but its evans was a specially fine one. If any further evidence were required to give absolute proof of the implemental nature of the prestwich, this Plate L would assuredly afford it. Fig. 12 is a fine example of the broad, irregular obovate form. It is worked with a wavy edge all round, and shows a splendidly-struck evans-sear. A reference to the included scale is requested for the realization of the immense size often reached by the prestwich, although these are by no means the heaviest specimens found. Fig. 13 shows a plaster-cast of a restored evans struck from this implement. Fig. 14 is an example of a beautiful well-worked heavy, boucher-form prestwich.


In order to enable one to distinguish an evans from an ordinary worked flake, some further observations upon this remarkable implement may be justifiable. It must be remembered that the flaking on the flake-face is really effected around the periphery of the prestwich, of which it formed a part; so that if the detaching blow were administered correctly the flaking plane maintained the desired direction, and all the pits-of-percussion were truncated. Plate LII shows a series of good typical examples; the accompanying scale indicates their sizes. Fig. 15 is a beautiful flat example not more than 16 mm. thick. It was a well-[474[474] struck evans, and consequently presents a good symmetrical outline (with a slightly twisted point). It will be seen that every pit-of-percussion, except the one above the point-of-percussion, of the detaching blow has been cut away, and that it therefore received no finishing touches after it had been removed from the prestwich. Fig. 16 is equally thin; it is obovate in outline, and beautifully symmetrical. Every pit-of-percussion is truncated. The material of Fig. 17 was rather more heterogeneous, some parts being far more brittle and some more tough; but for all that it is a very fine implement of great symmetry, every pit-of-percussion being truncated, and when perfect came to a point. Fig. 18 is a beautiful, thin, clean evans, with rather mixed working, but for the most part very bold, the original pits-of-percussion lying well on the prestwich. Plate LIII shows a good series of evanses (Figs. 19-27), and are of good typical medium sizes, exhibiting the various outlines assumed by this interesting implement, from pointed elongated oval to almost square. It also shows the varying quality of the work found upon them, from [Vide pp. 465 and 466.] homo-megaclastic to fairly fine [Vide p. 465.] heteroclastic. Fig. 28 is a very beautiful typical evans of the lanceolate type. It is 19 x 15.5 cm., and not more than 2.5 cm. thick, thinning very regularly from the butt to the point. The flint is very much altered, and fairly well sand polished, or what is called patinated. It varies in colour from buff to greenish-brown. It is shown larger size to give a better idea of the dimensions attained by these implements, although this is but very little larger than Figs. 16, 17, 18. Plate LV, Figs. 29-32, shows a series of more lanceolate forms. When these were required the working of the prestwich was more from the ends in order to obtain greater parallelism. Fig. 29 closely approaches the lanceolate flake implements; Fig. 30 is more typical working. This latter is very much altered, and like many others, very hard worn and striated. Fig. 31 is a very similar evans, almost equally altered, and like the other showing signs of very hard wear and secondary chipping at the edges. Fig. 32 is specially interesting, in that two minor projections on the hammer-stone brought off a concurrent composite flake from an otherwise specially fine evans.


The classic implement in this important cache is almost absent. For a long time Mr. Cross's collection did not contain one. Amongst the next five hundred various specimens they numbered about three-per cent., and these belonged to the three groups: 1, the prestwichian; 2, the ebbsfleetian: 3, other Thames valley cultures.

Plates LVI and LVII give a good idea of the group, which probably belong to the prestwichian industry. They are all in the same mineral condition, and have been subject to the same rough treatment, and until one turns many of them over to look at the other side one cannot tell at a glance whether they are rather [475] small prestwiches or bouchers. The working is exactly the same, megistoclastic and megaclastic, and there is a general absence of the mastery of the flaking plane, which for want of a better word I call [Vide p. 465.] celoclastic; where the worker appears to have had but little directing influence over the flaking plane, and the flakes removed leave concavities with high separating ridges, and where the blows are hardly ever administered with the correct degree of force, so that a large proportion of the planes resolve, giving rise to a hackly surface. It will be noticed they are mostly irregularly cordate in outline, and it is difficult to say which part of the implement was operative. Scarcely any of the points would pierce, or the edges cut, and they are sometimes as thick as wide. Four (Figs. 33-36) are much better than the rest, more ovoid, and of these Figs. 33 and 34 are the best; but although they are much better worked they are by no means fine. Fig. 33 shows [Vide p. 465.] meroclastic fairly [Vide p. 465.] holoclastic work, and from the way the flaking plane bends at the will of the operator may be called [Vide p. 466.] clinoclastic, and was probably the result of an advance outburst of genius, which became typical and much improved in the succeeding ebbsfleetian stage, and attained its highest pitch in some parts towards the close of the neolithic period, to which I hope to refer in the future. The strength of the blows, however, was not well regulated, as many of the flaking-planes resolve, even in the best specimens. The six largest specimens are exceedingly rough. Fig. 34 belongs to the [Vide p. 466.] monohedral industry, but is beautifully ridgeless, in advance of any other specimen I have seen. It is quite possible that Figs. 33 and 34 really do not belong to this industry, although the mineral condition would point to their being so.


The heavy axes often approach the prestwiches in outline excepting always the method of working, and the evans-sear. They frequently attain a weight of 3 or 4 Ibs. and are simply a big flattened point, worked from a transversely flattened butt say 14 x 14 cm., with a thickness of 6 or 7 cm. at the somewhat straight butt. In the pointed group (Fig. 47), the [Vide p. 466] megistoclastic roughing out is usually entirely, or largely, from the butt, a few finishing touches being put on when necessary: Fig. 45 is a good example of a round-pointed form; it is sphenoidal from its very broad base to the front; Fig. 46 is more ovoid, with still straighter cutting edge. In others the fronts broaden out leading up to the next group.


This group is very interesting, the shorter ones, such as Fig. 43, calling

strongly to mind giant triangular Danish Kitchen Midden axes. This, it will be noticed is very, bold megistoclastic work, the straight cutting edge being the result of secondary work. They elongate out attaining such outlines as Fig. 44.


Here we are brought into touch with the well-known form of hand or side choppers, usually regarded as typical Mousterian. They are usually somewhat crescentic with a more or less straight dorsal chord, the curved side being the cutting edge, and the back broadening out horizontally, evidently for grasping by the hand. But the specimens recovered from Baker's Hole are generally more massive than those of any collection I have seen from any French mousterian deposit, weighing in the neighbourhood of two pounds: Fig. 48 is a good typical example. They are of varying sizes down to 10 x 8 em., and although of different outlines have always a more or less straight thickened back, opposite a cutting edge.


In classifying a collection of many hundred evanses and flake implements from this remarkable deposit, the former stand out very distinctly, although in outline they sometimes approach each other. We get hundreds of big spalls and nuclei from off which flakes sometimes 25 x 20 cm. have been dislodged, but they bear no, relation to the prestwiches, off which evanses have been worked. Naturally, however, advantages were taken of what we may call nuclear ridges either adventitious or purposely worked. 17

Plate LVII shows a series of pretty little monohedral boucher-form tools, in which the flake-face is sometimes the result of chipping before removal from the nucleus, while there are many hundreds of nuclei, that show scars of the removal of such flakes; none show the characteristic holohedral working, nor even all-round working peculiar to the prestwich. It is therefore certain that the prestwich and evans seem a peculiar and unique form of working which may be taken to represent a given industry or culture. Plate LIX shows a series of pointed [Vide p. 466.] dolichoclastic and monohedral flake tools produced by taking advantage of either a chance ridge, or purposefully worked one, or series of ridges. They occur in every size from say 6 or 8 cm. to say 15 or 18 cm., they usually have, ridge backs, but occasionally, if the ridge were too high, the upper angle flake would be removed giving rise to the concave-ridge, wholly or in part: such tools, would, of course, form excellent spear-heads.


The knives are at once one of the most numerous and beautiful groups,. usually parallel-sided, from pretty little tools not more than 6 x 2 em. up to parallel-sided beauties 17 x 6 em. or even much larger; now with single ridged. backs, and now with concave broad flat backs, tools born perfect and complete at the detaching blow; or now again secondarily worked, or hard used, or still further worked either to a convex cutting edge or shaped before they were detached. [477] This


characteristic dolichoclastic master-flaking was transmitted to the Ebbsfleetians, who. if possible, even exceeded their progenitors. Plates LX-LXII show series of these interesting dolichoctastic implements. The general facies is altogether different from that of a collection of ordinary polyhedral palaeolithic flakes from the generality of River Drift sections. which are more often comparatively brachyclastic, and we feel ourselves in the face of a race of men who manipulated flint in a manner essentially their own. This fact becomes specially emphasized when comparing them with a set of deeply iron-stained flakes, now found in this remarkable deposit, but which obviously belong to another age and race. Plate LX shows a series of small knives, and gives a good idea of the general facies of the group. There are others still smaller; and there is a corresponding series of points, those about four or five times as long as broad being .specially graceful, calling to mind the beautiful French cave things. All these show signs of wear or secondary work. Plate LXI introduces us to a group of very much stouter knives, all of which show signs of hard use and sometimes of ,repeated edge trimming. It would appear as if, in use, the small flakes were often removed from both faces. Plate LXII introduces us to an. even more beautiful :group; Figs. 97-102 are examples of very fine parallel dorsal concave-ridged-back flaking, sometimes with re-worked edges, but always showing signs of use. The pointed group (Figs. 105-107) are examples of very fine tools, and might have :served either as knives or spear heads, their all-round used conditions suggest they were used as knives; but in all probability the same tool often did more than double duty.


In practice one would find that for every detaching flaking-plane that maintained parallelism with the ridge, and so produced straight-cutting edges, scores would run out after a while, rising and approaching the dorsal ridge, and thus put on a point. There is, however, a law in flint fracture dependent upon the molecular arrangement, if I might use that term to distinguish it from homogeneity, in virtue of which all blows administered with the correct force and bearing giving relations to definite planes in the flint, well act along a curve as though it were a straight plane; we can therefore often see all the faces .describing similar curves, and yet retain a parallelism of the faces, or a bi-symmetrical outline when lanceolate. Indeed, generally speaking, the antecedent flaking planes, which now form the ridge-face, and the ultimate flaking plane will be under the same determining conditions, the inequalities in the flint, in the one, being represented in the other, and this sometimes when one is a natural fissure and the other an artificial fracture. In the group under consideration advantage is taken of a nuculear ridge upon a flint purposely worked upon it, when a slight angulation of the flaking plane produces a more or less bi-symmetrical lanceolate blade. These lanceolate blades, or spear- or javelin-heads are by far the most numerous tools, occurring by the thousands, good average sizes being 10 x 5 cm. [478] to, say, 15 x 7 cm., many being very much larger. The bilateral symmetry obtained with these things is often surprising. Frequently they widen out rather more than the proportions quoted, and often show signs of pointing by secondary working, and less frequently they are re-worked for the greater part of their entire length. But not only are these blades worked from an angle-edge formed by the meeting of two adjacent antecedent flaking planes, but any suitable union of faces, so that we get the same outline with multiple-ridge backs. Immense quantities of these show secondary worked and hard used edges, and the size of the working shows that many of them had reached the critical angle, and had been re-edged again and again. The enormous size of some of these is also a special feature, one before us measuring, 20 x 9 cm. and as it is broken it must have been still longer. Figs. 104-107 give a good idea of the lanceolate group, remembering that they descend down to, say 6 x 2 cm.


The clearers produced in this dolichoclastic parallel flaking are also a special feature reaching a length of 20 cm.; even first and second flakes attain a length of 15 or 18 cm. Their quaint outlines would suggest all sorts of uses to an imaginative mind, but to one who has spent his days and years in practical flint-working, they would be regarded as "clearers," that is, huge. chips split off in the, process of bringing a parent flint into a shape desired for working.


Very many blades and flakes bore evidence of continued re-chipping and using; one of the most plentiful tools was the hollow scraper. These old fellows, like other palaeolithics, knew only present needs, and when a hollow scraper was wanted, the first implement to hand was sacrificed for it. The hollows were usually from, say, 1 to 8 cm. There were often two or three in one flint, and often two adjoining were worked from opposite faces.


Those curious so-called drills, or bone splitters, which are fairly common in plateau flints, and which maintained their hold throughout the stone ages, formed by a long extending point between two hollowed out bays, were also fairly common, some showing reversed working.


I saw no sign of a spatulate scraper, although there were hundreds of blades, which, with a little end trimming, would soon have been made into them; nor any of any other type, or anything approaching one, not even in the ebbsfleetian industry, which from the fineness of some of the side choppers our French friends would. call mousterian or solutrian, which clearly emphasizes my contention [479] that the foreign systems of classification, however suitable they may be to the conditions upon which they are founded, are quite inapplicable in, this. country.


But in addition to the prestwichian industry in this remarkable cache there, is another, which, while it may be regarded as the lineal descendant of it, in that it follows in its monohedral dolichoclastic line, nevertheless leaves the prestwich, the evans, etc., behind, and introduces us to clinoclastic work of a very high order. Moreover, as previously pointed out, the flint is unchanged, with only here and there a, single exception, and the edges of the implements are as fresh and sharp as if only worked yesterday. Plate LXIII shows examples of their beautiful work. Unfortunately, Fig. 110 has lost its point, but when perfect must have been a glorious long oval boucher, and must have been 30 x 12 cm.

It is really a beautiful piece of clinoclastic work— and although it has been in a highly absorbent matrix (probably in a drainage line from the surface), is nevertheless sharp and fresh.. Figs. 108-109 are excellent examples of shorter oval bouchers; the former is excellent flaking and symmetry, and as sharp as the work of a forger, the latter is heavier. Fig. 111 is a most beautiful implement. calling, to mind the well-known mousterian specimens, and of a quality of work which finds no approach in the prestwichian industry. I fear I cannot go into so minute a description of all the products of this industry on this occasion. I will therefore content myself with one beautiful group, the dolichoclastic, which embraces both knives and lanceolate heads of great elegance. Plate LXIV gives an idea of these; they are all perfectly unaltered, and as sharp and fresh as the day they, were made, bearing on their faces the likeness of their forefathers of prestwichian days, but at the same time just as different in many ways; showing a command of the flaking plane, which had not been acquired in the earlier days. Many of them are reworked into side-scrapers—quite different from anything prestwichian, the secondary work upon some of them being of great perfection. Both groups are equally represented, but there is also shown a very much greater skill in the selection of the flint; personally I should think this flint was mined and worked before it had lost its "quarry water," and this with the superior lithoclastic art of ebbsfleetian days resulted in really beautiful specimens.


Amongst the relics of this cache there are some 3 or 4 per cent. of old familiar faces, polygonal comparatively brachyclastic, and dark and red-brown iron stained flints, which obviously belong to neither of these industries, but which occur by the hundreds in other Thames valley deposits. When there is evidence of any iron staining in the prestwhichian things the colour has been almost entirely [480] withdrawn, and the specimens are exceedingly hard water-worn, but in marked additions to this have been pushed along until the edges are very often entirely ground off, and sometimes the faces striated, whilst upon their surfaces are exceedingly large incipient bulbs-of-percussion of a peculiar character, the largest I have seen anywhere, even at the feet of chalk-cliffs shores. The nearest I have seen them approached is by certain flints in the glacial deposits of East Anglia, and from the glaciers of Europe, but they are quite unlike those one sees upon modern beach specimens.


Omitting the familiar iron-stained fresh river-drift specimens, I think we may fairly claim that we have in this remarkable deposit an admixture of two well-marked industries, for which I propose the names of the prestwichian and the ebbsfleetian.

The prestwichian characterised by:- The ebbsfleetian characterised by:

1. The large number of the immense 1. The apparent absence of the prestwich.

implement we call the prestwich.

2. The offspring of the latter the evans 2. The apparent absence of the evans.


3. The general monohedral industry. 3. The general, but more highly developed mono-

hedral industry.

4. The paucity of the boucher and these 4. The greater number of bouchers, and these often

these almost invariably of rude much smaller, flatter, more oval, very much

large celoclastic work. better heteroclastic work, which is usually of

fine, and sometimes of superlative quality.

5. The huge 7-1b. pointed single 5. The total absence of broad axes.

and double. broad cutting-edge axes.

6. The massive triangular axes. 6. The total absence of triangular axes.

7. The heavy magistoclastic side 7. The megistoclastic side-choppers replaced by

choppers. mega clastic heteroclastric specimens, of a

very much more clinoclastic character.

8. The altered often very hard worn 8. The absolutely fresh unworn unaltered condi-

battered condition of the im- tion of the implements.


[481] I have some four or five other industries at present upon which I have been engaged for a long time, which I hope to have the honour to describe before this Institute in the future; and if other field workers—unfortunately altogether too small a body—will also publish the results and the details of their labours, we shall then have the archaeological materials to hand, and if these are supplemented by the geological and palaeontological, then, and not till then, we shall have the necessary data. for the classification of. the British Stone aye industries.

In choosing a typical industry I purposely refrain from all attempts at correlation for the present, as the subject would be too large. That can come when others have furnished their quota of the facts of the field they have specially studied.


[Note—To obtain actual size multiply these plates by 1,000 and divide by number of thousandths quoted.]

Fig. 1

PLATE XLV—Reverse side of "prestwich." Prestwichian industry, Baker's Hole Northfieet,

Kent, .875.

Fig. 1a.

" XLVI—Obverse side of "prestwich." Prestwichian industry, Baker's Hole, Northfleet, Kent, .875.


Figs. 2-5.

" XLVII.—"Prestwiches." Prestwichian industry, Baker's Hole, Northfleet, Kent, .625.

Figs. 2A-5A.

" XLVIII—"Prestwiches." Obverses. Prestwichian industry, Baker's Hole, Northfleet, Kent, .520.

Figs. 6-9

" XLIX.-"Prestwiches." Other types, obverses showing " evans" sears, Baker's Hole, .413.

" L—"Prestwiches." Axe types. Prestwichian industry. Fig. 13 shows restored "evans." Baker's Hole, .400.

" LI—"Prestwich." Obverse. Prestwichian industry, Baker's Hole, .900.

" LII—"Evanses." Prestwichian industry, Baker's Hole, .543.

" LIII—"Evanses." Prestwichian industry, Baker's Hole, . 346.

" LIV—"Evans." Lanceolate type with section showing thickness of implement. Baker's Hole, .900.

" LV—" Evanses." Prestwichian industry, Baker's Hole, .565.

" LVI—Hâche focus" Prestwichian industry, Baker's Hole, .414.

" LVII—Monohedral hâche forms. Prestwichian industry, Baker's Hole, .518.

" LVIII—Heavy Axes. Figs. 43, 44, triangular group; Figs. 1 45-47, rounded cutting

edge group; Fig. 48, hand-chopper. Prestwichian industry, Baker's Hole, .425.

" LIX—Monohedral points. Prestwichian industry, Baker's Hole, .400.

" LX—Knives. Prestwichian industry, Baker's Hole, .470.

" LXL—Large monohedral knives. Prestwichian industry, Baker's Hole, .500.

" LXIL—Dolichoclases. Prestwichian industry, Baker's Hole, .435.

" LXIII.—Bouchers. Ebbesfleetian industry, Baker's Hole, .466..

" LXIV—Monohedral dolichoclases. Ebbesfleetian industry, Bakers Hole, .523.


1 Prehistoric Phases, H. M. Westropp, p. xxiv.

2 "Continuation of the Palaeolithic and neolithic periods," Journ. Anth. Inst.., xxxii.

3 Prehistoric Phases, op. cit., pp. 41-95.

4 Text Book of Geology, Prestwich, vol. i, p. 92.

5 "Contributions to the Pleistocene Geology of the Thames valley," M. A. C. Hinton and A. S. Kennard, F.G.S., Essex Naturalist, vol. xv, pp. 56-88.

6 Journal of Conchology, Oct., 1909.

7 "Superficial Deposits of North Kent," Goodchild, Proc. Geol. Assoc., vol. ix, p. 155.

8 Hinton and Kennard, op. cit.

9 "The Ossiferous Fissures near Ightham," by W. J. Lewis Abbott, Q.J. G. S., vol. 1, Figs. 1, 2 and 3.

10 At Redlands, Chipstead.

11 Worked Flints from the Cromer Forest Bed," by W. J. Lewis Abbott, Nat. Science, vol. X, P. 89.

12 Rel. Aquit., P. XLII, Fig. 10.

13 "The Pigmy Implements," W. J. Lewis Abbott, Man, 1909, No. 103.

14 "Excursion to Crayford," F.G.J. Spurrell, Proc. Geol. Assoc., vol. iv, pp. 212-216, 1885.

15 Unfortunately it is now closed to the public.

16 See also Ancient Stone Implements, second edition, pp. 55 and 56.

17 Natural Science, Plate VI, 571-93 (42-25).


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