BETWEEN THE WARS
Without being oversentimental, we can sympathize with the many experts conned by Piltdown man. And we should keep in mind that Woodward and the others did exemplary work in their sciences. The American paleontologist George Gaylord Simpson, in reply to my inquiry about his views on Piltdown, reminded me that Piltdown was the only great mistake of Woodward's life. Simpson, who knew Woodward, said he was happy that his friend had never known that Piltdown Man was a hoax and disgusted that Woodward is remembered for the mistake and not for his scientific successes (Private communication, September 21, 1984).
The find of a second eoanthropine elsewhere, some months after the pit had gone sterile, was a blow to skepticism. As Woodward and Sollas emphasized, a coincidence of human skull and ape jawbone could have happened at one site; but for it to happen again elsewhere strained incredulity. The period between the world wars served up, year after year, one hominid fossil after another, each of which should have sent Piltdown Man packing. Yet his defenders held on with a tenacity that does not evoke respect. What happened between the wars is not complimentary to Woodward, Hooton, Smith, or Keith.
At Barcombe Mills, near Piltdown, Dawson found fragments of several cranial bones and a molar tooth stained the same color as the Piltdown remains; but all these were modern. Still, he was lucky or crafty. The Sussex weald is not littered with old bones. When he went visiting other sites with Woodward (as he did in 1914), he never found anything. He did find important things at another site, and they are known, but just where and with whom are not known.
 PILTDOWN MAN, JR.
Dawson did not identify the site that was the birthplace of Piltdown Man, Jr. Sheffield Park, fields and a superb garden, two miles north of Piltdown Common, has regularly been assumed to have been that site. A footnote in H. J. Osborne White's 1926 Geology of the Country Near Lewes corrects this wrong assumption:
In response to an enquiry, Sir A. Smith Woodward states (in let. 28th Oct. 1924) that the situation of this field was never revealed to him, but he is satisfied that it is "somewhere on Mr. John Martin's Netherhall farm ... near Chailey (or Fletching) Common."
At the beginning of 1915, Dawson wrote to Woodward:
I believe we are in luck again! 1 have got a fragment of the left side of a parietal bone with portion of the orbit and root of nose. Its outline is nearly the same as your original reconstruction and being another indi-vidual the difference is very slight. (January 9, 1915)
He also found a fragment of an occipital bone.
Seven months later, Dawson casually informed Woodward of a subsequent find at Site II, an eoanthropine molar tooth "just the same as the others as to wear." The booty included a fragment of a rhinoceros molar as well, an index to the dating of the human pieces.
In October 1915, Dawson became ill with septicemia, and by February 1916 was to have an injection of serum that he thought would make him "worse, temporarily." The treatment was not successful; he lingered on for another six months and died in August 1916. Throughout this time, Woodward did nothing about reporting the confirmatory find of the new ape-man. On February 28, 1917, he finally announced Dawson's discovery to the Geological Society. Thus, more than two years went by from the time of Dawson's first mentioning the Site II frontal bone to the announcement, while defenders and skeptics bashed each other over Piltdown Man, unaware that another waited in the wings to play out his filial role.
In his "Fourth Note on the Piltdown Gravel, with Evidence of a Second Skull of Eoanthropus dawsoni" (1914, the year the pit went sterile), Woodward shaped the isolated molar tooth into a weapon against Miller. Comparison of this new tooth with corresponding molars of "a Melanesian, a Tasmanian, and a Chimpanzee, of approximately the same  size" showed that it was essentially human. The portion of frontal bone was as thick as the comparable piece from the Piltdown pit's cranium. Grafton Elliot Smith composed an appendix for Woodward's paper on the endocranial cast of the Piltdown skull.
The Pit in its environs. After converting, Osborn wrote "The Dawn Man of Sussex," which pictures the pit: (A) Lateral view, the pit between the downs. (B) Overhead view of pit between roadway and hedge. (C) Close-up overhead view, with some finds and dates. (From Osborn [ 1921].)
Meticulous Ray Lankester demurred again. He thought it possible that the piece of frontal bone and the molar had come from the same individual whose cranium and jaw had been found in the pit. He did not speculate on how the pieces had traveled.
Piltdown Man, Jr., frontal and occipital bones and single molar, snared three American skeptics. After a service at Westminster Abbey in 1921, Henry Fairfield Osborn made a pilgrimage to South Kensington to visit the relics from the pit and Site II. Woodward removed them from a steel safe-protection from German bombers past and future-and placed the Piltdown men on the table. Osborn spent two hours closely examining  the family resemblances of Senior and Junior. He recanted, the experience expressed by a prayer from Princeton college days to the effect that, though it appeared paradoxical, "0 Lord, it is nevertheless true," confessing the awesome conversion to readers of his 1921 "The Dawn Man of Piltdown, Sussex":
If there is a Providence hanging over the affairs of prehistoric men, it certainly manifested itself in this case, because the three minute fragments of this second Piltdown Dawn Man found by Dawson are exactly those which we would have selected to confirm the comparison with the original type, namely: (1) a first lower molar tooth, (2) a bit of bone of the forehead near the right eyebrow, (3) the middle part of an occipital bone of the skull. Both the grinding tooth and the eyebrow region are absolutely distinctive. Placed side by side with the corresponding fossils of the first Piltdown Man they agree precisely; there is not a shadow of difference.
No story in the history of anthropology, Osborn exclaimed, is more praiseworthy than that of the Dawn Man of Sussex. In his mea culpa for past infidelity he said he had been wrong about the canine, too-that belonged to the lower jaw; he had been wrong about Woodward, and Woodward could have said, 1 told you so. Osborn settled on Piltdown as closer to the human line than was Neanderthal (Osborn, 1928).
In 1922, Osborn interpreted a single tooth found in Nebraska as that of a new anthropoid, which he named Hesperopithecus haroldcookii, and which turned out to be the tooth of a prehistoric pig (Blinderman, 1985).
In that year, too, George Grant MacCurdy, who was at our last view of him an ally of Miller, went on his pilgrimage to South Kensington. Although repeating his dictum that "association can never be made to take the place of articulation," he now contended that "the Piltdown lower jaw is seen to be intermediate between the lower jaw of Heidelberg and that of a young chimpanzee." What led him to this revision was the improbability of another accidental association of parts at Site II; association at two different sites can be made to take the place of articulation. As for the simian shelf that had not appeared in any hominid jaw before, well, "one must invoke a wider range of individual variation within the genus Homo (Eoanthropus included) than has hitherto been considered ample" (MacCurdy, 1924). Piltdown Man, Jr., also converted William King Gregory (Gregory, 1929).
In 1924, upon retiring from the British Museum of Natural History, Sir Arthur Smith Woodward bought a home in Haywards Heath, Sussex.  From his home, Woodward wandered out to the pit, dug, sifted, and satisfied his nostalgia for the gravel by peering at it through a magnifying glass. The Piltdown romance still had powers to charm. It had been a splendid episode, the hours of hard labor rewarded by the excitement of another bony fragment, the friendship, above all the putting together of pieces of a missing link so credible that opposition like that of Osborn, MacCurdy, and Gregory shook in its foreign boots.